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Measles causes significant childhood morbidity in Nigeria. Routine immunization (RI) coverage is around 40% country-wide, with very high levels of spatial heterogeneity (3–86%), with supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) at 2-year or 3-year intervals. We investigated cost savings and burden reduction that could be achieved by adjusting the inter-campaign interval by region.


We modeled 81 scenarios; permuting SIA calendars of every one, two, or three years in each of four regions of Nigeria (North-west, North-central, North-east, and South). We used an agent-based disease transmission model to estimate the number of measles cases and ingredients-based cost models to estimate RI and SIA costs for each scenario over a 10 year period.


Decreasing SIAs to every three years in the North-central and South (regions of above national-average RI coverage) while increasing to every year in either the North-east or North-west (regions of below national-average RI coverage) would avert measles cases (0.4 or 1.4 million, respectively), and save vaccination costs (save $19.4 or $5.4 million, respectively), compared to a base-case of national SIAs every two years. Decreasing SIA frequency to every three years in the South while increasing to every year in the just the North-west, or in all Northern regions would prevent more cases (2.1 or 5.0 million, respectively), but would increase vaccination costs (add $3.5 million or $34.6 million, respectively), for $1.65 or $6.99 per case averted, respectively.


Our modeling shows how increasing SIA frequency in Northern regions, where RI is low and birth rates are high, while decreasing frequency in the South of Nigeria would reduce the number of measles cases with relatively little or no increase in vaccination costs. A national vaccination strategy that incorporates regional SIA targeting in contexts with a high level of sub-national variation would lead to improved health outcomes and/or lower costs.


Measles vaccination is a cost-effective way to prevent infection and reduce mortality and morbidity. However, in countries with fragile routine immunization infrastructure, coverage rates are still low and supplementary immunization campaigns (SIAs) are used to reach previously unvaccinated children. During campaigns, vaccine is generally administered to every child, regardless of their vaccination status and as a result, there is the possibility that a child that is already immune to measles (i.e. who has had 2+ vaccinations) would receive an unnecessary dose, resulting in excess cost. Selective vaccination has been proposed as one solution to this; children who were able to provide documentation of previous vaccination would not be vaccinated repeatedly. While this would result in reduced vaccine and supply cost, it would also require additional staff time and increased social mobilization investment, potentially outweighing the benefits. We utilize Monte Carlo simulation to assess under what conditions a selective vaccination policy would indeed result in net savings. We demonstrate that cost savings are possible in contexts with a high joint probability of an individual child having both 2+ previous measles doses and also an available record. We also find that the magnitude of net cost savings is highly dependent on whether a country is using measles-only or measles-rubella vaccine and on the required skill set of the individual who would review the previous vaccination records.



Pediatric diarrhea can be caused by a wide variety of pathogens, from bacteria to viruses to protozoa. Pathogen prevalence is often described as seasonal, peaking annually and associated with specific weather conditions. Although many studies have described the seasonality of diarrheal disease, these studies have occurred predominantly in temperate regions. In tropical and resource-constrained settings, where nearly all diarrhea-associated mortality occurs, the seasonality of many diarrheal pathogens has not been well characterized. As a retrospective study, we analyze the seasonal prevalence of diarrheal pathogens among children with moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) over three years from the seven sites of the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS), a case–control study. Using data from this expansive study on diarrheal disease, we characterize the seasonality of different pathogens, their association with site-specific weather patterns, and consistency across study sites.


Methodology/Principal findings

Using traditional methodologies from signal processing, we found that certain pathogens peaked at the same time every year, but not at all sites. We also found associations between pathogen prevalence and weather or “seasons,” which are defined by applying modern machine-learning methodologies to site-specific weather data. In general, rotavirus was most prevalent during the drier “winter” months and out of phase with bacterial pathogens, which peaked during hotter and rainier times of year corresponding to “monsoon,” “rainy,” or “summer” seasons.



Identifying the seasonally-dependent prevalence for diarrheal pathogens helps characterize the local epidemiology and inform the clinical diagnosis of symptomatic children. Our multi-site, multi-continent study indicates a complex epidemiology of pathogens that does not reveal an easy generalization that is consistent across all sites. Instead, our study indicates the necessity of local data to characterizing the epidemiology of diarrheal disease. Recognition of the local associations between weather conditions and pathogen prevalence suggests transmission pathways and could inform control strategies in these settings.

Emmanuel P. Mwanga, Salum A. Mapua, Doreen J. Siria, Halfan S. Ngowo, Francis Nangacha, Joseph Mgando, Francesco Baldini, Mario González Jiménez, Heather M. Ferguson, Klaas Wynne, Prashanth Selvaraj, Simon A. Babayan & Fredros O. Okumu



The propensity of different Anopheles mosquitoes to bite humans instead of other vertebrates influences their capacity to transmit pathogens to humans. Unfortunately, determining proportions of mosquitoes that have fed on humans, i.e. Human Blood Index (HBI), currently requires expensive and time-consuming laboratory procedures involving enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) or polymerase chain reactions (PCR). Here, mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy and supervised machine learning are used to accurately distinguish between vertebrate blood meals in guts of malaria mosquitoes, without any molecular techniques.


Laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis females were fed on humans, chickens, goats or bovines, then held for 6 to 8 h, after which they were killed and preserved in silica. The sample size was 2000 mosquitoes (500 per host species). Five individuals of each host species were enrolled to ensure genotype variability, and 100 mosquitoes fed on each. Dried mosquito abdomens were individually scanned using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometer to obtain high-resolution MIR spectra (4000 cm−1 to 400 cm−1). The spectral data were cleaned to compensate atmospheric water and CO2 interference bands using Bruker-OPUS software, then transferred to Python™ for supervised machine-learning to predict host species. Seven classification algorithms were trained using 90% of the spectra through several combinations of 75–25% data splits. The best performing model was used to predict identities of the remaining 10% validation spectra, which had not been used for model training or testing.


The logistic regression (LR) model achieved the highest accuracy, correctly predicting true vertebrate blood meal sources with overall accuracy of 98.4%. The model correctly identified 96% goat blood meals, 97% of bovine blood meals, 100% of chicken blood meals and 100% of human blood meals. Three percent of bovine blood meals were misclassified as goat, and 2% of goat blood meals misclassified as human.


Mid-infrared spectroscopy coupled with supervised machine learning can accurately identify multiple vertebrate blood meals in malaria vectors, thus potentially enabling rapid assessment of mosquito blood-feeding histories and vectorial capacities. The technique is cost-effective, fast, simple, and requires no reagents other than desiccants. However, scaling it up will require field validation of the findings and boosting relevant technical capacity in affected countries.

Carol Camlin, Adam Akullian, Torsten Neilands, Monica Getahun, Anna Bershteyn, Sarah Ssali, ElvinGeng, Monica Gandhi, Craig Cohen, Irene Maeri,  Patrick Eyul, Maya L.Petersen, Diane Havlir, Moses Kamya, Elizabeth Bukusi, Edwin Charlebois


Mobility in sub-Saharan Africa links geographically-separate HIV epidemics, intensifies transmission by enabling higher-risk sexual behavior, and disrupts care. This population-based observational cohort study measured complex dimensions of mobility in rural Uganda and Kenya. Survey data were collected every 6 months beginning in 2016 from a random sample of 2308 adults in 12 communities across three regions, stratified by intervention arm, baseline residential stability and HIV status. Analyses were survey-weighted and stratified by sex, region, and HIV status. In this study, there were large differences in the forms and magnitude of mobility across regions, between men and women, and by HIV status.

We found that adult migration varied widely by region, higher proportions of men than women migrated within the past one and five years, and men predominated across all but the most localized scales of migration: a higher proportion of women than men migrated within county of origin. Labor-related mobility was more common among men than women, while women were more likely to travel for non-labor reasons. Labor-related mobility was associated with HIV positive status for both men and women, adjusting for age and region, but the association was especially pronounced in women. The forms, drivers, and correlates of mobility in eastern Africa are complex and highly gendered. An in-depth understanding of mobility may help improve implementation and address gaps in the HIV prevention and care continua.

Isobel Routledge, Shengjie Lai, Katherine E Battle, Azra C Ghani, Manuel Gomez Rodriguez, Kyle B Gustafson, Swapnil Mishra, Joshua L Proctor, Andrew J Tatem, Zhongjie Li, Samir Bhatt


China reported zero locally-acquired malaria cases in 2017 and 2018. Understanding the spatio-temporal pattern underlying this decline, especially the relationship between locally-acquired and imported cases, can inform efforts to maintain elimination and prevent re-emergence. This is particularly pertinent in Yunnan province, where the potential for local transmission is highest. Using a geo-located individual-level dataset of cases recorded in Yunnan province between 2011 and 2016, we jointly estimate the case reproduction number, Rc, and the number of unobserved sources of infection. We use these estimates within spatio-temporal geostatistical models to map how transmission varied over time and space, estimate the timeline to elimination and the risk of resurgence. Our estimates suggest that, maintaining current intervention efforts, Yunnan is unlikely to experience sustained local transmission up to 2020. However, even with a mean Rc of 0.005 projected for the year 2019, locally-acquired cases are possible due to high levels of importation.

Dylan Green, Brenda Kharono, Diana M. Tordoff, Adam Akullian, Anna Bershteyn, Michelle Morrison, Geoff Garnett, Ann Duerr, Paul Drain



Despite policies for universal HIV testing and treatment (UTT) regardless of CD4 count, there are still 1.8 million new HIV infections and 1 million AIDS-related deaths annually. The UNAIDS 90-90-90 goals target suppression of HIV viral load in 73% of all HIV-infected people worldwide by 2030. However, achieving these targets may not lead to expected reductions in HIV incidence if the remaining 27% (persons with unsuppressed viral load) are the drivers of HIV transmission through high-risk behaviors. We aim to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to understand the demographics, mobility, geographic distribution, and risk profile of adults who are not virologically suppressed in sub-Saharan Africa in the era of UTT.


We will review the published and grey literature for study sources that contain data on demographic and behavioral strata of virologically suppressed and unsuppressed populations since 2014. We will search PubMed and Embase using four sets of search terms tailored to identify characteristics associated with virological suppression (or lack thereof) and each of the individual 90-90-90 goals. Record screening and data abstraction will be done independently and in duplicate. We will use random effects meta-regression analyses to estimate the distribution of demographic and risk features among groups not virologically suppressed and for each individual 90-90-90 goal.


The results of our review will help elucidate factors associated with failure to achieve virological suppression in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as factors associated with failure to achieve each of the 90-90-90 goals. These data will help quantify the population-level effects of current HIV treatment interventions to improve strategies for maximizing virological suppression and ending the HIV epidemic.



The compartmental modeling software (CMS) is an open source computational framework that can simulate discrete, stochastic reaction models which are often utilized to describe complex systems from epidemiology and systems biology. In this article, we report the computational requirements, the novel input model language, the available numerical solvers, and the output file format for CMS. In addition, the CMS code repository also includes a library of example model files, unit and regression tests, and documentation. Two examples, one from systems biology and the other from computational epidemiology, are included that highlight the functionality of CMS. We believe the creation of computational frameworks such as CMS will advance our scientific understanding of complex systems as well as encourage collaborative efforts for code development and knowledge sharing.


Previous studies from low-resource countries have highlighted concerns surrounding non-specific effects of whole-cell pertussis vaccination, particularly in females. We sought to examine the effects of sex and birth weight on health services utilization following first exposure to whole-cell pertussis vaccine. Using a self-controlled case series design and by calculating relative incidence ratios (RIRs), we compared the relative incidence of emergency department visits and/or hospital admissions between sexes and between birth weight quintiles. Females had a higher relative incidence of events following vaccination compared to males (RIR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.30), which persisted after adjustment for birth weight (RIR = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.97, 1.28). We also observed a trend of increasing relative incidence of events over decreasing quintiles of birth weight; infants in the lowest quintile had a 26% higher relative event rate compared to the highest quintile, which was robust to adjustment for sex (Unadjusted RIR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.56; Adjusted RIR = 1.23, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.53). The risk of all-cause health services utilization immediately following vaccination, was elevated in female infants and infants having lower birth weight. Further study is warranted to determine if vaccine dosing should take infant weight into account.

Hannah C. Slater, Amanda Ross, Ingrid Felger, Natalie E. Hofmann, Leanne Robinson, Jackie Cook, Bronner P. Gonçalves, Anders Björkman, André Lin Ouédraogo, Ulrika Morris, Mwinyi Msellem, Cristian Koepfli, Ivo Mueller, Fitsum Tadesse, Endalamaw Gadisa, Smita Das, Gonzalo Domingo, Melissa Kapulu, Janet Midega, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Cécile Nabet, Renaud Piarroux, Ogobara Doumbo, Safiatou Niare Doumbo, Kwadwo Koram, Naomi Lucchi, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, Jacklin Mosha, Alfred Tiono, Daniel Chandramohan, Roly Gosling, Felista Mwingira, Robert Sauerwein, Eleanor M Riley, Nicholas J White, Francois Nosten, Mallika Imwong, Teun Bousema, Chris Drakeley, Lucy C Okell


Malaria infections occurring below the limit of detection of standard diagnostics are common in all endemic settings. However, key questions remain surrounding their contribution to sustaining transmission and whether they need to be detected and targeted to achieve malaria elimination. In this study we analyse a range of malaria datasets to quantify the density, detectability, course of infection and infectiousness of subpatent infections. Asymptomatically infected individuals have lower parasite densities on average in low transmission settings compared to individuals in higher transmission settings. In cohort studies, subpatent infections are found to be predictive of future periods of patent infection and in membrane feeding studies, individuals infected with subpatent asexual parasite densities are found to be approximately a third as infectious to mosquitoes as individuals with patent (asexual parasite) infection. These results indicate that subpatent infections contribute to the infectious reservoir, may be long lasting, and require more sensitive diagnostics to detect them in lower transmission settings.